Путь на Север: откуда началась Норвегия — КРАМАР БЛОГ

Путь на Север: откуда началась Норвегия

Чайки летят в Норвегии

До посещения Норвегии я никогда не интересовалась её историей. Для меня было откровением, что на разных берегах одного и того же фьорда люди говорят на разных языках, что разнится фонетика топонимов, что есть Земля Троллей, а есть места, где тролли не жили. Оказалось, несмотря на свой небольшой размер, Норвегия безумно многогранна и мне стало интересно, как они такие разные объединились в единое государство и живут припеваючи.

Тысячу лет назад на территории современной Норвегии, как и много где еще царили войны между мелкими народностями, племенами и протогородами. Суровый климат и малое количество земель для земледелия провоцировал варварские набеги на окрестные территории. Викинги побывали практически во всех частях Европы, высаживались в Северной Америке и Северной Африке. Но своего собственного государства у них не было.

Столь агрессивное поведение жителей Скандинавского полуострова заставляло мореплавателей обходить стороной Северное и Норвежские моря, либо рисковать своим судном, грузом и жизнями команды, если путь на север был действительно необходим. Но в конце IX века Харальд Прекрасноволосый, родившийся недалеко от современного Хёугесунна, начал объединять Норвегию. Разумеется, делал он это не дипломатическими методами, а более привычным для викингов способом — войной. Но начало было положено, и вот уже в 879 году Юго-Западная часть Норвегии окончательно объединилась, и обрела современное название (Norðrvegr — «путь на север» с древнескандинавского), а Харальд I Прекрасноволосый становится первым королем Норвегии. Столь агрессивное поведение длилось вплоть до 1066 года.

Главным стратегическим преимуществом Норвегии являлось местоположение. Северные и Норвежские моря очень трудные для мореплавания: постоянные шторма и сильные арктические ветры сильно портят жизнь судам. Укрыться от суровых условия позволяют острова в изрезанной береговой линии Норвегии. Цепочка проливов вдоль всей Норвегии обеспечивает свободный путь на север, а норвежцы обеспечивали безопасность за определенную плату, укрепляли крепостями и городами, покупали и продавали в прибрежной зоне товары. Контролируя такой важный морской путь они обеспечили себе отличный рост экономики, и лишь потом обнаружили нефть, которая подняла уровень жизни до небес.

Хёугесунн же удостоился звания города-основателя (неофициального), но именно здесь находится стела, посвященная объединению Норвегии и памятные доски в честь Харальда I. Прямо на территории города проходит тот самый путь на север, имеющих стратегическое значение для всей Норвегии до сих пор. Так что когда будете в этих местах, считайте, что вы побывали в «нулевом километре» Норвегии.

Автомобильный мост в Risøy над мариной Хёугесунна.
Автомобильный мост в Risøy над мариной Хёугесунна.
Почитать еще про другие города, в которых мы останавливались можно по ссылкам: 

Хёугесунн → Эспевер → Лейрвик → Росендал → Хюснес → Лангевог → Хёугесунн.

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